Leafy Spurge Flea Beetles (Aphthona spp)
Introduced from Austria, Hungary, Italy, former Yugoslavia, and Switzerland in the USA between 1983 and 1993. Each species prefers unique site characteristics.
Leafy Spurge Stem Borers (Oberea erythrocephala)
Introduced from Austria, Hungary, and Italy in the USA in 1982. This insect prefers mesic sites with tree cover but is believed to do well in riparian areas as well.